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Сравнение функций причастия I и герундия

 

Participle I Gerund
1. 2. 3. 4.
is/are xing делает/делают has been xing/have been xing Часть простого сказуемого.   не употребляется
  не употребляется is/are xing …есть делание именная часть составного сказуемого
  не употребляется begins1 xing (начинает) делать часть составного глагольного сказуемого
The xing x делающий (какой) the x xing делающий Определение. а) of (about, for, in, at, xing) делания б) the xing x (для чего?) делания Определение. а) после существительного   б) перед существительным
(When) xing … (While) xing… …xing… Обстоятельство. For xing… …for xing. делания, придаточное предложение Обстоятельство (всегда с предлогом)
  не употребляется xing is Делание, делать Подлежащее
  не употребляется   а)xing делать б) of xing о делании Дополнение а) без предлога   б) с предлогом

1После глаголов, выражающих начало, продолжительность или конец действия: начало, продолжительность или конец действия: ,continue, cease, start, etc.

Герундий может иметь перед собой

– предлог, e.g.: with

– притяжательное местоимение my (our, your, his, her, its, their) xing

– существительное в притяжательном падеже Tom’s xing

I. State the Gerund in the active/passive forms.

1ing, being 2ing, having 3ing, have 4ed, has been 5ing, having been 6ed, of 7ing, to have been 8ing, 9ing, having been 10ed, to 11, to 12ing, 13ed, have 14ing, having been 15ed.

 

II. Give the Russian equivalents of the following parts of sentences. Pay attention to the form of the Gerund in the active/passive forms.

1) to avoid making mistakes, 2) to deny not having done the work, 3) excuse my coming here so late, 4) to forgive his interfering, 5) to go on making a presentation, 6) to keep insisting on her continuing the project, 7) to stop conducting the research, 8) not to mind consulting an expert, 9) could not help trying again, 10) can not put off doing these calculations.

 

III. Find differences and similarities of the structures in bold. Give the Russian equivalents of the following sentences.



a. He does not like being told what to do.

Telling the truth helps everybody.

b. He likes being asked for his expert advice.

The initial difficulties of asking for the necessary information were overcome.

c. He was charged with having committed plagiarism.

Committing a bill always leads to difficulties.

d. He was afraid of being informed about system failure.

Informing the team on time leads to a more effective work.

e. Not knowing what to do, they stopped the process.

I know every research in the field that is worth being known.

f. There is no hope of his finishing the project on time.

I called him to say about my having completed the project.

 

IV. Find the Gerund, define its features. Give the Russian equivalents of the following sentences.

1. The user selects the commands by simply looking at the blinking arrows on the screen. 2. Using video cameras, the robot studies its surroundings before planning its movements. 3. This new method shakes up conventions, but is definitely helping children to learn better, because at this age touching is one of their most developed senses and comes naturally. 4. Apple had initially been accused of infringing on six patents for iPhone-related technology covering everything from reducing signal noise to programming the device’s touch screen so a user’s head does not accidentally activate it while talking on the phone. 5. The potential is boundless, according to some educational specialists, they see it as a way of providing students in the developing world with access to the international educational ladder. 6. This rapidly expanding method is catching on, but with a high drop-out rate is it really up to replacing the on-campus experience? 7. Conceptually it’s possible for you to organise your life in such a way as you can move around all the things you might want to do without having to stand in a queue line, and you can do that from your sitting room. 8. I don’t think we are going to see education becoming nothing but playing digital games, but I don’t think you can do education with just one method. 9. So they are wanting to find an egg, help it to hatch and look after it so that the creature can grow, which transfers to real life nurturing skills such as looking after a pet or young children at home. 10. Learning from playing computer games is not only for school children. In Germany lots of different people benefit from games, including students, people with special needs and even adult professionals. 11. After all, the concept – creating flexible electronics and assembling them on equally flexible plastic – has been touted since the 1960s, when the first flexible solar cell arrays appeared. 12. Controlling the TV without a remote would eliminate the need to look for it.

V. Find the Gerund, define its functions. Give the Russian equivalents of the following sentences.

1. Using this technique gives you more flexibility. 2. Typing text messages on a mobile phone via the tiny soft keyboard is very cumbersome. 3. A user can navigate through various on-screen menus by simply focusing attention on the commands. 4. Researchers also expect the system to contribute to reducing up to 30 percent of CO2 emissions from sports facilities. 5. Zach helped develop «A Slower Speed of Light», a videogame which explains the theory of relativity by enabling gamers to experience it. 6. Many countries have not only started using computer games in the classroom, but are also encouraging students to build their own games, even at a very young age. 7. New ways of interacting with computers have proliferated in recent years with technology like touch screens, motion-sensing and eye-tracking.

 

VI. Read the sentences and decide whether the words in bold are the Gerund or Participle I.

1. Freezingan Android phone can help reveal its confidential contents. 2. The advance could speed the development of smarter artificial skin capable of «feeling» activity on the surface. 3. The researchers discovered that quickly connecting and disconnecting the battery of a frozen phone forced the handset into a vulnerable mode. 4. After all, the concept – creating flexible electronics and assembling them on equally flexible plastic – has been touted since the 1960s. 5.Using bundles of vertical zinc oxide nanowires, the researchers built arrays consisting of about 8,000 transistors. 6.Mimickingthe sense of touch electronically has been challenging, and can be achieved by measuring changes in resistance prompted by mechanical touch. 7. They include findingmore efficient ways to sort through nanotubes which are made in a wide variety of sizes and types. 8. This gives a way to gain performance while shrinkingthe device. 9. In the early 1980s viruses depended on humans to do the hard work of spreading the virus to other computers. 10. Some harmful programs can create a backdoor, allowing a remote user to access the victim's computer system. 11. At that point, the system reverts to essentially guessing the location.

 

Герундиальные обороты

Герундий с относящимися к нему словами образует герундиальные обороты.

 

Признаки распознавания независимого

Герундиального оборота

 

1) ( of) the x’s (x)xing +зависимые слова 2) (of) myxing + зависимые слова   - оборот стоит после предлога - герундий стоит после существительного в притяжательном или общем падеже, притяжательного местоимения НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ герундиальный оборот - придаточным предложением с союзами что; то, что; о том, чтобы; в том, что - существительным  

 

We all know of their designing a new type of semiconductor device.   Prof. Smith’s studying the properties of fiber attracted our attention. Мы все знаем, что они проектируют новый тип полупроводникового устройства. То, что профессор Смит изучаетсвойства волокна, привлекло наше внимание. Изучение профессором Смитом волокна привлекло наше внимание.

 






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