Тексты для обязательного чтения и перевода
Read and retell the text
THE WORK OF THE RUSSIAN POLICE
Our police was created by the working people to protect their rights. The officers of our police have always displayed courage and heroism in the fight against enemies of our state during the Great Patriotic War as well as in the years of peaceful construction.
The main aim of police has always been to maintain public order, to protect state and personal property and safeguard the rights of our citizens. Nowadays great attention in the work of police is paid to prevention of crime, to its suppression. But if a crime has been committed, the police officers are to solve the crime as quickly as possible. To fulfil these tasks the organs of internal affairs are composed of different departments.
The Criminal Detection Department is one of the most complicated police services.'The main responsibility of the officer of the Criminal Detection Department is to detect the criminal, that is to locate and apprehend him. In many cases the detective must trace a fugitive who is hiding.
The officers of the Criminal Investigation Department collect facts to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspect. The final test of a criminal investigation is in presentation of evidence in court. Corpus delicti must be established, the defendant must be identified and associated with the crime scene. The investigator must also provide competent witnesses.
Economic Crimes Department fights against those who don't want to live an honest life The responsibility of the officers of this Department is to reveal the criminal activity of those who commit embezzlement and other economic crimes, bring them to justice.
The State Auto-Inspection is responsible for traffic regulation and, safety on the roads.
The Transport Police maintains law and order on the railway, air lines and water ways of the country.
The Juvenile Inspection handles «difficult» juveniles and their careless parents. They also do much work to prevent juvenile delinquency.
A new service for the fight against organized crime has been created in our police. Organized crime operates on fear, bribery and force. Police officers of organized crime department are devoting their efforts to collect sufficient evidence to bring gang leaders to justice.
Some new words to the text:
| to create
|| – творить, создавать
| to protect
|| – защищать, ограждать
| to commit
|| – совершать
| to commit a crime
|| – совершать преступление
| to detect
|| – разыскивать, обнаруживать
| to locate
|| – определять местонахождение
| to trace
|| – следить, выслеживать
|| – беглец
| to hide
|| – прятаться, скрываться
| to prove
|| – доказывать
|| – вина, виновность
|| – невиновность
|| – ответчик, обвиняемый, подсудимый
| to identify
|| – опознавать, устанавливать личность, идентифицировать
| to associate
| to reveal
|| – 1)раскрывать, показывать; 2) признаваться, выдавать
|| – растрата, присвоение денежных средств
| to bring smb. to justice –
|| привлечь кого-либо к суду
| to rehabilitate
|| – исправлять, перевоспитывать
|| – взяточничество
| || || || |
Questions to the text
1. What is our police created for?
2. How did the police work during the history of its existence?
3. What is the aim of police activity?
4. What departments is police composed of?
5. What is the main responsibility of the Criminal Detection Department?
6. What are the duties of the officers of the Criminal Investigation Department?
| missing person
|| – пропавший без вести
| bank frauds
|| [bxnk frO:dz]
|| – банковские махинации
|| – растрата, присвоение денежных средств
| moral offence
|| ['mOrql q'fens]
|| – моральные преступления
|| – подделка документов, фальшивка
|| – поддельный, подложный, фальшивый
| records department
|| ['rekOd di'pa:tmqnt]
|| – регистрационный отдел, архив
|| – отпечаток пальца
Read and retell the text
Crime prevention is one of the main present-day social problems throughout the world. Crime prevention is an effort to decrease and overcome crime. It is an attempt to eliminate the causes of crime, the common mission of law enforcement agencies and society to develop morally in the right direction not only law-abiding citizens but also suspects and criminals. The two very important aspects of the problem are — crime prevention by effective law enforcement and crime prevention as a moral problem.
The government of our country is paying great attention to the problem of crime prevention. The public and the organs standing on guard of law and order are using every opportunity to prevent crime and recidivism. The worker of the police is not a scientist working in a quiet and isolated laboratory. His laboratory is a whole city with all of its people and all of their needs. That's why crime prevention problem is one of the main tasks of legal education. Future workers of the organs of the Interior are learning to use special means, methods and forms of crime prevention and crime solution. They are learning to obtain information for law enforcement agencies, to patrol streets, to examine a crime scene properly, to search for and collect evidence, to establish corpus delicti, to solve crimes quickly and accurately and to detect and apprehend a criminal, fear of immediate arrest, conviction and punishment being an efficient crime- prevention factor for potential criminals. But the central aspect of the solution of this problem is to be a moral approach requiring extra skills for police officers. That's why our own future Sherlock Holmeses are dealing with human relations problems. They are learning to establish contacts with the public, they are supervising difficult teenagers and potential criminals, an intelligent, disciplined police officer with high morality standard being in himself an effective crime prevention instrument.
Special crime prevention divisions of the Police are functioning now in close cooperation with the Public in private residences, schools, transportation systems and commercial areas, the Public-Police crime prevention centres being one of the forms of our crime prevention programme. Public order squads or «people's druzhinniks» are also taking part in this process now. They are patrolling streets at night combatting petty offences.
Prevention of juvenile delinquency is one of the important police and public tasks too. The police personnel of the inspection and commissions for the affairs of minors of executive committees are paying special attention to the juveniles of «problem» families rendering them the necessary assistance. They are to view their life and behavior using such means as persuasion, control, supervision, social and individual influence and law enforcement trying to turn them onto the right track.
Street crime prevention, traffic safety, combatting drug trafficking and organized crime are also the matters of police concern.
The police and the public are combining their efforts in the struggle against alcoholism since the drunk driver is causing thousands of injuries and needless deaths.
The police together with social organizations are constantly seeking the best forms and methods of crime prevention, explanation of the law to the citizens playing an important part.
The efforts to prevent crime were not unsuccessful in our society. However we are planning to do much more.
Questions to the text.
1. What is crime prevention?
2. What are the two aspects of the problem?
3. Is our government working much at this problem?
4. Are future workers of the Police dealing with this problem?
5. How are they preparing to solve this problem?
6. What are they doing?
7. What are the main aspects of crime prevention work for the police and the public?
8. What problems are the public order squads dealing with?
|| через, по всему
|| преодолеть, победить
| cause n, v
|| дело, причина, причинять
|| соблюдающий закон
| law and order
|| должным образом
|| осуждение, обвинение
| human relations
|| человеческие отношения
| close cooperation
|| ['klous kou"Opq'reiSqn ]
|| тесное взаимодействие
| Public-Police crime prevention centres
|| пункты охраны общественного порядка
| public order squads
| combat n, v
|| преступление, правонарушение
|| правонарушитель, преступник
|| несовершеннолетний, подросток
|| движение; торговля
|| наблюдение, надзор
|| направлять, повернуть
|| разъяснение, объяснение
|| применять, использовать
| special means, methods and forms of crime solution
|| ['speSql] ['mi:nz]['meTqdz] [sq'lu:Sqn]
|| специальные средства, методы и формы предотвращения преступлений (paскрытия преступлений) - (crime solution)
| investigate, examine, search, observe, inspect, survey a crime scene
осматривать место пришествия
| collect (lift) evidence
|| собирать (изымать) доказательства
| apprehend a criminal
|| задерживать преступника
| establish corpus delicti
|| ['kO:pqs dl:'liktai]
|| установить состав преступления
| juvenile, teenager
|| ['dZu:vinail] ['ti:neiGq]
|| подросток, несовершеннолетний
| deal with
|| ['di:l wiD]
|| обращаться, иметь дело с чем-либо, рассматривать вопрос
| establish contact
|| устанавливать контакт
| solve a crime quickly and accurately
|| [sOlv] ['xkjuritli]
|| раскрывать преступление быстро и полно
| patrol streets
|| патрулировать улицы
| traffic law enforcement
|| дорожный надзор
|| осуществлять шефство, надзор, наблюдение
| traffic regulations rules
|| правила уличного движения
| to obtain (get) information
|| получать сведения информацию
Read and retell the text
Interpol is-an international corporation founded in 1923 as a service organization devoted to coordinating actions against international criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world. This organization is not under the control or supervision of any government.
Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose task is to hunt down the international criminal. A multinational force, much like the United Nations, Interpol is made up of police of the Free World and a bona fide law enforcement agency in its own right. Among the first to fight international terrorism and sky-jackings, Interpol still leads the war on narcotics, assists a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war criminals. One of the most highly respected groups in the world, Interpol, like any other police force is under governmental control to safeguard the basic rights of every citizen. It operates according to a strict code of behavior and adheres to the highest ethical standards.
Interpol has never been recognized or established by any international charter or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol's cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was recognized as an intergovernmental organization. .
Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not governmental representatives, although certain governments have sent observers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and immigration departments.
Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative rights. Its function is to disseminate information. Today 80 percent of the permanent staff is French. Interpol is much like any large corporation with bureaus in various countries and with representatives from these offices also stationed at the main office. Information is exchanged between the many national bureaus, but the police forces themselves are subject to the laws and policies of their respective nations.
Interpol is divided into four main bodies the General Assembly, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat and the National Central Bureaus.
The General Assembly is composed of the delegates from each member country. It is «the Supreme Authority». The General Assembly controls the policy of the organization.
The Executive Committee is a nine-member board made-up of the president, two vice-presidents, and six delegates chosen by the General Assembly.
The General Secretariat, the permanent body, located in Lion, is Interpol's business division. It contains the «permanent departments» four of which specialize in certain crimes: one handles murder, burglary, assault, larceny, car theft, and missing persons; another deals with bank frauds and other types of embezzlement; a third, with drug traffic and morals offenses; and a fourth deals with forgery and counterfeiting.
Other divisions are the general records department, where files are kept, and a special records department, where fingerprints and other methods of identification are used.
The National Central Bureaus are the Interpol offices in various countries. Each NCB is empowered to communicate directly with and exchange information with any other NCB.
Some new words to the text:
| to recognize
|| узнавать, признавать
| to hunt down
|| [hAnt daun]
|| выследить, поймать
| bona fide
|| добросовестный, настоящий
|| воздушный пират
| to safeguard
|| гарантировать, защищать
| to adhere
|| придерживаться, оставаться верным (принципам и т. д.)
|| хартия, устав (ООН)
|| (международный) договор, соглашения
|| представитель, депутат палаты представителей
|| разведывательная служба, разведка
|| таможня, таможенная пошлина
| to dissiminate
|| бюро, офис
| to subject
|| подчинять, покорять (to)
|| тяжкое убийство
|| кража со взломом
|| нападение, словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим насилием
|| кража, воровство
| car theft
|| [kR Teft]
|| угон автомобиля
1. Some new words to the text:
Significant важный, значительный, существенный
Contribution вклад, содействие
To mean означать
To conduct investigation проводить расследование
Tool орудие, инструмент
To overcome преодолеть
Request просьба, запрос
2. Read and translate the text and answer the following questions:
1. What is Europol?
2. When did it start its work?
3. What is the aim of Europol?
4. What international crimes does Europol fight against?
5. Does Europol any executive powers? What does it mean?
6. What can you say about structure of this organization?
7. Is there any difference between Europol and Interpol? What are their roles in the fight against organized crime?
Nowadays, there are no boundaries for organized criminal groups. Because of modern technology and enormous resources, these groups are illegally active worldwide. In fact, organized crime represents a threat to the structure and values of our democratic systems affecting European citizens’ security and freedom.
Europol is the European Union law enforcement organization that handles criminal intelligence. Its aim is to improve the effectiveness and cooperation between the competent authorities of the Member States in preventing and combating such international organised crimes as: illicit drug trafficking; weapons smuggling; illicit immigration network; terrorism, forgery of money (counterfeiting of the Euro) and other means of payment; trafficking in human beings including child pornography; illicit vehicle trafficking; money-laundering. In addition, other main priorities for Europol include crimes against persons, financial crime, computer crime and cyber crime. In short, the mission of Europol is to make a significant contribution to the European Union’s law enforcement action against crime with an emphasis on targeting criminal organizations.
Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Union’s criminal intelligence agency. The agency started limited operations on January 3, 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). In 1998 the Europol Convection was ratified by all the member states and came into force in October. Europol became fully operational on July 1, 1999.
It is a support service for the law enforcement agencies of the EU member states. Europol has no executive powers. This means that Europol officials are not entitled to conduct investigations in the member states or to arrest suspects. In providing support, Europol with its tools – information exchange, intelligence analysis, expertise and training – can contribute to the executive measures carried out by the relevant national authorities.
Europol is a multi – disciplinary agency, comprising not only regular police officers but staff members from the member states’ law enforcement agencies: customs, immigration services, border and financial police, etc. Europol helps to overcome the language barriers in international police cooperation. Any law enforcement officer from a member state can address a request to their Europol National Unit (ENU) in her / his mother tongue and receive the answer back in this language.
Three different levels of cooperation are possible: the first one is technical cooperation. The next step is strategic cooperation aimed at exchanging general trends in organized crime and how to fight it. The top level of cooperation includes the exchange of personal data and requires the fulfillment of Europol’s standards in the field of data protection and data security.