EASTER TRADITIONS IN EUROPE AND AMERICA
Many Easter customs have come down to us from long ago. Often they have changed along the way. People celebrated the holiday according to their beliefs and religions denominations.
Christians commemorate Good Friday as the day that Jesus Christ died and Easter Sunday as the day that he was resurrected. People follow Easter traditions all over the world.
I. Find Russian equivalents
Custom, to come down, long ago, to change, to celebrate, according, belief, denomination, to commemorate, to resurrect, Easter
II. Read and translate the text.
III. Insert the missing words
1. Many Easter … have come down to us from long ago.
2. They have … along the way.
3. People celebrated the holiday according to their …
4. Christians … Good Friday as the day Jesus Christ …
5. People commemorate … as the day Jesus was resurrected.
6. People follow Easter … all over the world.
IV. Speak about Easter traditions.
London has preserved its old ceremonies and traditions to a greater extend than any other city in England. Uniforms are rather characteristic of this fact. When one sees the warders at the Tower of London with their hats and unusual dresses with royal monograms, one fuls carried back to the age of. Queen Elizabeth I. The Tower of London was used as a palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
I. Find Russian equivalents
To preserve, old, ceremony, uniform, warder, hat, dress, royal, to feel, to carry back, prison.
II. Read and translate the text.
III. Insert the missing words.
1. London has … its old traditions more than any other city in England.
2. … are rather characteristic of this fact.
3. … at the Tower of London wear hats and unusual dresses.
4. Their hats and dresses have … monograms.
5 When you see the warders you feel … to the age of Queen Elizabeth.
6. The Tower of London was used as a … and a prison.
IV. Speak about Russian or Kazakh traditions.
Справочник по грамматике английского языка
| Применение модальных глаголов
| Модальные глаголы
shall/willbe able to(буд.вр)
|| Способность к чему-л.
|| Can you skate?
Could you skate when you were 6? I shall be able to play the guitar in 2 months.
|| You can see the forest through the other window.
| Просьба или разрешение
|| Can I use your car? You can use my car.
| Сомнение, недоверие
|| Can it be true?
|| It can't be true.
shall/willbe allowed to(буд.вр
|| May I borrow your pen?
|| He may be ill.
| ұнатпаушылық немесе жазғыру білдіреді
|| You might have helped me.
(haveto- придется, вынужденно)
shall/will have to
|| Долг, объязанность
|| You must talk to your daughter about her future.
|| He mustnot leave his room for a while.
| Эмоциональный совет
|| You mustn’t miss the exhibition. It is very good.
| Уверенное предположение
|| Your father must be eighty now.
|| Наст.и прош.вр. необходимость
|| You needn’t be afraid of me.
| should / ought to
|| Совет, упрек.
|| Heshouldn’t smoke so much. You shouldprepare your lessons if you want to pass your exams.
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with modal verbs:
0. Nicole can drive, but she hasn’t got a car.
1. I … go to the post office. I … some stamps.
2. My eyes are not very good. I … to wear glasses.
3. Catherine got the job because she … speak five languages.
4. What … we see on this map?
5. You … listen to music but not very loudly.
6. …. Icome in? Yes, you … .
7. At English the students … speak English only.
8…. you speak Spanish? - No, unfortunately I … .
9. He … not speak English yet.
10. You … not smoke here.
Exercise 2. Complete the sentences use the modal verbs can, may or must:
0. May I come in?
1. Garry travelled a lot. He ______ speak five languages.
2. You ______ not smoke here.
3. ______ take your book? – I am afraid not, I need it.
4. He ______ not speak English yet.
5. I have very little time, I ______ go.
6. They ______ not go to the park today because they are busy.
7. You ______ read this text, it is easy enough.
8. What ______ we see on this map?
9. ______ you speak Spanish? – No, unfortunately, I ______ .
10. At what time ______ you come to school?
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t or needn’t:
0. We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.
1. We’ve got plenty of time. We __________ hurry.
2. We have enough food at home, so we __________ go shopping.
3. Gary gave me a letter to post. I __________ remember to post it.
4. Gary gave me a letter to post. I __________ forget to post it.
5. There’s plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You __________ decide now.
6. You __________ wash those tomatoes. I washed them.
7. This is a valuable book. You __________ look after it carefully and you __________ lose it.
8. A: What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?
B: Well, it __________ be big – that’s not so important. But it __________ have a nice garden
– that’s essential.
9. Don’t tell anybody what I said. You __________ keep it a secret.
10. You can come with me if you like, but you __________ come if you don’t want to.
Complete the sentences use the modal verbs can, may or must:
0. She must still live in Paris.
1. He is busy. He … be writing a book about his travels.
2. But he is happy. He … enjoy it.
3. I … come and see you tomorrow if I have time.
4. What time is it? – It … be about six o`clock, but I am not sure.
5. Only a person who knows the language very well … answer such a question.
Complete the sentences using needn’t + the following verbs:
ask come explain leave tell walk
0. We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t leave yet.
1. I can manage the shopping alone. You __________ with me.
2. We __________ all the way home. We can get a taxi.
3. Just help yourself if you’d like more to eat. You __________ first.
4. We can keep this a secret between ourselves. We __________ anybody else.
5. I understand the situation perfectly. You __________ further.
Когда в центре внимания говорящего находится лицо или предмет, который подвергается действию, или когда нет необходимости упоминать лицо, совершающее действие, глагол употребляется в страдательном залоге:
Many students discussed this question. (Active Voice.) – This question was discussed by many students. (Passive Voice.)
Страдательный залог образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be и третьей основной формы смыслового глагола (Participle II).
This country is washed by many seas.
В отрицательной форме частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола:
This country is not washed by many seas.
В вопросительной форме страдательного залога вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим:
Is this country washed by many seas?
When was this monument built?
Временные формы страдательного залога употребляются согласно тем же правилам, что и соответствующие им временные формы действительного залога.
Спряжение глагола to take в страдательном залоге.
am / are / is taken
was / were taken
shall be / will be taken
am / are / is being taken
was / were being taken
have / has been taken
had been taken
shall have/ will havebeen taken
| || Active Voice
|| Passive Voice
| The Present Simple tense
|| am/is/are + V3
| The Past Simple tense
|| was/were + V3
| The Future Simple tense
|| shall/will + V1
|| shall/will + be + V3
| The Present Continuous tense
|| am/is/are + Ving
|| am/is/are + being + V3
| The Past Continuous tense
|| was/were + Ving
|| was/were + being + V3
| The Future Continuous tense
|| shall/will + be + Ving
| The Present Perfect tense
|| have/has + V3
|| have/has + been + V3
| The Past Perfect tense
|| had + V3
|| had + been + V3
| The Future Perfect tense
|| shall/will + have + V3
|| shall/will + have + been + V3