Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты.
1. The engine must be able to start below freezing point.
2. We consider ultra-lightweight concrete to be one of the most fundamental bulk materials of the future.
3. To prevent wear and overheating, the engine has a lubrication system.
4. The designer’s objective is to make the exhaust quiet.
5. The brakes have been discovered to be badly worn.
6. They wanted the manager to organize all the workers needed for construction jobs.
7. Different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together.
8. It is important not to use too much water as this make the concrete weak.
9. They designed the building structures to support and resist the loads which act on them.
10. Vehicles are not supposed to be driven at speeds which are higher than the posted maximum.
Герундий, функции герундия в предложении, герундиальные обороты.
Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык.
1. Smoking causes lung cancer. 2. She suggested seeing a movie after work. 3. I miss working in the construction industry and perhaps I can get my old job back. 4. I dislike being involved into the discussion, which has nothing to do with my scientific interests. 5. I regret having missed two seminars, but I was ill. 6. Solving the problem of high temperatures led to another one. 7. This is the basic method of solving problems of statics. 8. In this chapter, we present important tools for constructing stabilizing models. 9. This method is useful for finding optimal control for linear control systems. 10. You have never mentioned living in Japan before. How long did you live there? 11. If he keeps coming to work late, he’s going to get fired. 12. National park officials do not permit entering the park without an official guide. 13. Exercising and eating right can help you live a long and healthy life. 14. I appreciate your having offered me this opportunity. 15. He left without saying a word. 16. The police arrested him for speeding. 17. You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work. 18. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do.
Соедините части предложений.
1. She is interested a) drinking alcohol.
2. She avoids b) to seeing my daughter.
3. You should give up c) being ill.
4. We really enjoy d) laughing at her.
5. I’m looking forward e) to living in a dirty house.
6. He is used f) talking to drunk people.
7. She pretended g) swimming in the sea.
8. Pamela is good h) at riding a horse.
9. I couldn’t help i) in surfing the Internet.
Вставьте нужные предлоги.
At, after, from, in, of, off, on, to, up, without
1. What prevented him __ completing the test? 2. He succeeded __ obtaining exact data. 3. She is good __ painting. 4. We arrived in Madrid __ driving all night. 5. There is no point __ waiting. 6. In spite __ missing the train, we arrived on time. 7. He kept __ asking for money. 8. She always puts __ going to the dentist. 9. When will you give __ smoking? 10. I look forward __ hearing from you soon. 11. I am used__ waiting for buses. 12. He was suddenly feeling cold in spite ___ being in the sun. 13. The accident occurred due __ his being tired. 14. The examination of the properties of these substances resulted __ developing a new theory. 15. We object __ using this technique. 16. Combustion was incomplete because __ insufficient oxygen being pre-sent. 17. What are you fond __ doing in summer? 18. If a job is worth doing, it is worth doing properly
16. Выберите правильный вариант.
1. We won’t succeed in testing without being helped/to be helped.
2. We want you looking / to look at our car.
3. He bought a new car instead of trying / to try to fix his old one.
4. We consider him being/ to be a good expert in this field.
5. We do not know of his having discovered / to have discovered this law.
6. I do not insist on our using/being used this equipment.
7. Our decision will depend on your being ready/to be ready to help us.
8. I insist on your checking/ being checked this device immediately.
9. I know of the problem having been solved/to have been solved.
10. The trouble is his not having taken/being taken enough readings.
11. If a job is worth doing/to do, it should be done properly.
Условные предложения. Сослагательное наклонение.
17. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму.
1. If they (use) another method, the results would have been different.
2.If the complete list of details had been prepared the engineer (buy) everything in time.
3. If we (test) this material, we should have used it in our work.
4. If the load (increase) the speed would decrease.
5. If all the people of the world (count) the atoms in a drop of water they would not be able to finish their work even in ten thousand years.
6. If one knows the dimensions of the body he (calculate) easily its volume.
7. If every star in the sky were to shine with the same degree of brightness, the distance to any star (can) readily be established.
8. If he (know) the specific heat and the weight of the substance, he would have calculated its thermal capacity.
9. If you rubbed the stick, it (become) warm.
10. If you (watch) a laser operate, you might be surprised at the simplicity of a device capable of such power.
11. If it were possible to learn how birds find their way, people (use) the principle to develop a navigation system for aviation.
12. If the circuit were closed, current (flow) in it.
13. If a device transmitted force into motion it (call) a machine.
14. If extreme temperatures generated by atmospheric friction were not so high, a hypersonic craft (require) complicated cooling measures.
15. If the design of cars (improve), the fuel consumption would be greatly reduced.
1. If he had used new materials, the device would have been more reliable.
2. They covered the goods with canvas lest they be damaged by rain.
3. Tsiolkovsky proposed that liquid propellants should be used for space travel.
4. It is essential that a superconductor should be a solid material and it is necessary that it should be cooled to –273 °C.
5. If they had applied the new method, the result would have been much better.
Copernicus suggested that the Sun and not the Earth should be at the centre of everything.
6. If I were you, I should stop the experiment.
7. Не spoke as if he were a specialist on the subject.
8. Some experiments on the ISS could result in the development of clocks a thousand times more accurate.
9. We insist that a meeting be held as soon as possible
10. If a less explosive gas had been used in dirigibles at the beginning of the century, they would have been in operation since that time.
11. People always wished that there were a device that could vaporize the hardest and the most heat-resistant material.
12. It was necessary that they take measures immediately.
13. If highly durable metal alloys had not been developed, there would be no modern rockets and aviation today.
14. If I were you I should get that car serviced
15. A number of important innovations such as reducing the weight of airplanes and spacecrafts would have been impossible unless composite materials had been developed.
16. If electric motors were used, cars would not pollute the air, would be practically noiseless and very easy to control.
17. Не ordered that the goods be sent immediately.
18. Не suggested that the question be discussed at the next meeting.
19. If supercomputers had not been used for thermodynamic calculations, designers would have spent all their lives on computations.
20. It is necessary that atomic energy should be used for industrial purposes.
21. He speaks English as well as if he were an Englishman.
Задания для чтения с последующим изложением прочитанного на английском языке
20. Прочитайте тексты, выделите основную информацию. (При подготовке пересказа внимательно прочитайте текст, подчеркните предложения, содержащие основные мысли. Затем составьте план высказывания, выпишите лексику, необходимую для передачи содержания. Не стремитесь пересказать текст дословно, опускайте маловажные детали.)