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ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ

Текст №1

Methods of Working Bedded Deposits Underground

The method of working (or method of mining) includes a definite sequence and organization of development work of a deposit, its openings and its face work in certain geological conditions. It depends on the mining plan and machines and develops with their improvements.

A rational method of working should satisfy the following require­ments in any particular conditions: 1) safety of the man; 2) maximum output of mineral; 3) minimum development work (per 1,000 tons output); 4) minimum production cost and 5) minimum losses of mineral.

Notwithstanding the considerable number of mining methods in existence, they can be reduced to the following main types: 1. Methods of working with long faces (continuous mining); 2. Methods of working with short faces (room-and-pillar).

The characteristic feature of the continuous mining is the absence of any development openings made in advance of production faces. The main advantage of long continuous faces is that they yield more mineral. Besides, they allow the maximum use of combines (shearers), cutting machines, powered supports and conveyers. The longwall method permits an almost 100 per cent recovery of mineral instead of 50 to 80 per cent obtainable in room-and-pillar methods.

The basic principle of room-and-pillar method is that rooms from 4 to 12 metres wide (usually 6-7) are driven from the entries, each room is separated from each other by a rib pillar. Rib pillars are recovered or robbed after the rooms are excavated. The main disadvantage of shortwall work is a considerable loss of min­eral and the difficulty of ventilation. In working bedded deposits methods of mining mentioned above may be used either with stowing or with caving.

In Russia, Germany (the Ruhr coal-field), France and Belgium nearly all the faces are now long ones. In Britain longwall faces predominate.

The USA, Canada, Australia and to some extent India are devel­oping shortwall faces and creating the machines for them. In these countries shortwall faces are widely used.

In Russia the thick seams are taken out to full thickness up to 4.5 m thick if they are steep, and up to 3.5 m thick if they are gently sloping or inclined. In the Kuznetsk coal-field long faces are worked to the dip with ashield protection, using a method proposed by N.Chinakal. In shield mining coal is delivered to the lower working by gravity so that additional haulage is not required.

It should also be noted that in Russia hydraulic mining is widely used as it is one of the most economic and advantageous methods of coal getting. New hydraulic mines are coming into use in a number of coal-fields. Hydraulic mining is developing in other countries as well.

The aim of hydraulic mining is to remove coal by the monitors (or giants) which win coal and transport it hydraulically from the place of work right to the surface.



It is quite obvious that the choice of the method of mining will primarily depend on the depth and the shape and the general type of the deposit.

Пояснения к тексту:


ü advantage - n преиму­щество; превосходство; выгода; польза; advantageous - а выгодный; благопри­ятный, полезный; to take ad­vantage of smth - воспользоваться чем-л.

ü caving - n обрушение (кровли); разработка с обруше­нием

ü deliver - v доставлять, по­давать; питать; нагнетать; про­износить (речь); читать (лекцию)

ü entry - n штрек; выработка горизонтальная; pl подготови­тельные выработки; нарезные выработки; штреки

ü giant - n гидромонитор

ü gravity - n сила тяжести; вес, тяжесть; by ~ самотеком, под действием собственного веса

ü haul - v доставлять; откаты­вать; подкатывать; перевозить; haulage - n откатка; до­ставка; транспортировка (по го­ризонтали)

ü longwall - n лава; выемка лавами; сплошной забой, сплошная или столбовая система раз­работки; syn continuous mining; ~ advancing on the strike - выемка лавами прямым ходом по про­стиранию; сплошная система разработки по простиранию; ~ advancing to the rise - сплошная система разработки с выемкой по восстанию; ~ to the dip - сплошная система разработки с выемкой по падению; ~ retreat­ing - выемка лавами обратным ходом; столбовая система раз­работки лавами

ü lose (lost) - v терять; loss - n потеря, убыток

ü notwithstanding - prep несмотря на; вопреки

ü pillar - n целик; столб; shaft ~ - околоствольный целик; ~ method - столбовая система разработки; ~ - mining выемка целиков

ü predominate - v пре­обладать, превалировать; пре­восходить; господствовать, до­минировать

ü protect - v охранять, за­щищать

ü reach - v простираться, до­ходить до; добиваться, дости­гать

ü room - n камера; очистная камера; room-and-pillar method - камерно-столбовая система раз­работки

ü satisfy - v удовлетворяться

ü shield - n щит; ~ method - щи­товой метод проходки, щито­вой способ

ü stowing - n закладка (выра­ботанного пространства)

ü method of working - система разработки

ü the sequence of working the seams - последовательность отработки пластов


Вопросы к тексту:

 

1. What factors does mining depend on?

2. What is mining?

3. What are the most important factors which affect the choice of the method of working?

4. Do short faces or long faces predominate in Russia? What can you say about the Ruhr coal-field?

5. Is Canada developing shortwall faces or longwall faces? What can you say about the USA?

6. What are the main disadvantages of shortwall faces?

7. What are the two main methods of working?

8. What is the main advantage of long continuous faces?

9. What methods of mining long faces do you know?

10. What method of mining is characterized by the absence of development openings?

Текст №2

Open-cast Mining

Minerals at shallow depths are extracted by open-cast mining which is cheaper than underground mining. Open-cast mining consists in removing the overburden, and other strata that lie above mineral or fuel deposits to recover them.

Opencasts or open-pit mines are in fact quarries for getting coal or metalliferous minerals. In the USA opencasts are called strip mines (strip pits).

All the surface excavations, waste heaps and equipment needed for extracting mineral in the open form an independent mining unit. An opencast is a long, wide and comparatively shallow working though it can reach 200 m or even more in depth.

In opencasts the excavation is by horizontal slices corresponding to the type of mineral or overburden in slice. One of them is a bench (or a slice). A bench is a thickness of rock or mineral which is separately broken or excavated. Other open workings are called trenches, which are long, narrow, shallow exploratory workings.

The whole production process in opencasts can be divided into the following basic stages: 1) preparing the site to be worked; 2) de-watering it and preventing inflows of water to the site; 3) provid­ing access (entry) to the deposit by the necessary permanent investment; 4) removal of overburden (stripping); 5) mineral excavation.

Stripping the overburden and mineral production include breaking rock or mineral, transporting it and loading it.

Minerals can often be dug directly by earth-moving equip­ment, while to break hard rocks it is necessary to use explosives.

Modern methods of working opencasts involve the use of mechanical plants or hydraulicking. The basic units of a mechanical plant are excavators, car drills or other mounted drills, and various mechanical handling equipment whereas the basic units of hydraulicking are monitors, pumps such as sludge pumps or gravel pumps. Hydraulicking can be used in soft or friable ground.

Transport operations involve the removal of waste rock or mineral, the latter being transported to coal washeries, ore concentration plants, to power stations, or to a railway station. Waste rock is removed to a spoil heap or dump (tip) either outside the deposit or in an extracted area, these being called external or internal dumps, respectively.

The transport used in opencasts are rail cars, large lorries, and conveyers. Sometimes the overburden is stripped and dumped by excavators without other transport, in overcasting or sidecasting.

Mineral is usually unloaded at specially equipped permanent stations. Waste rock is dumped at various points which are moved as the work develops.

Summing up, mention should be made of the fact that last decades have seen a marked trend towards open-cast operations. Large near-surface (though usually low-grade) deposits offer the possibility of achieving greater outputs. There can be little doubt that the cost per ton of ore mined by underground methods is generally higher than that for open-cast mining.

At the same time it is necessary to say that although efforts are made to develop mine sites in harmony with the environment, extraction methods produce some disturbances on the Earth's surface which reduce its economic value. In recent years Russia and other countries have developed national programmes for environmental protection. The aim of such programmes applicable to the mining industry is to control and protect natural resources and regulate reclamation and landscape restoration.

Пояснения к тексту:


ü break (broke, broken) – v отбивать (уголь или породу), обрушивать кровлю; разбивать; ломать; n от­бойка, обрушение; break oat - отбивать, производить выемку (руды или породы); расширять забой; breakage - n разрыхление, дробление

ü drill - n бур; перфоратор; бу­рильный молоток; сверло; v бу­рить; car ~ буровая тележка; mounted ~ перфоратор на ко­лонке; колонковый бурильный молоток; drilling - n бурение

ü dump - n отвал (породы); склад угля; опрокид; external ~ внешний отвал; internal - внут­ренний отвал; v сваливать (в отвал); разгружать; отваливать; опрокидывать (вагонетку); dumper – n опрокид; самосвал; отвалообразователь; dumping - n опрокиды­вание; опорожнение; опрокид; syn tip

ü environment – n окружение; окружающая обста­новка/среда

ü explode - v взрывать, подрывать; explosion - n взрыв; explosive - n взрывчатое вещество; а взрывчатый

ü friable - а рыхлый; хруп­кий; рассыпчатый; слабый (о кровле)

ü handle - v перегружать; доставлять; транспортировать; управлять машиной; n ручка; рукоять; скоба; handling - n по­дача; погрузка; перекидка, до­ставка; транспортировка; обра­щение с машиной

ü heap - v наваливать; нагре­бать; n породный отвал, терриконик; syn spoil ~, waste ~

ü hydraulicking - n гид­родобыча; гидромеханизирован­ная разработка

ü load - v нагружать, грузить, наваливать; л груз; нагрузка; loader - n погрузочная машина, навалочная машина, перегру­жатель; грузчик; cutter-loader - комбайн, комбинированная гор­ная машина

ü lorry - n грузовик; платфор­ма; syn truck

ü mention – v упоминать

ü overcasting – n пере­лопачивание (породы)

ü pump – n насос; gravel ~ necковый насос; sludge ~ шламо­вый насос; v качать; накачи­вать; откачивать

ü reclamation – n вос­становление; осушение; извле­чение крепи; ~ of land - восста­новление участка (после откры­тых работ)

ü sidecasting – n внеш­нее отвалообразование

ü site – n участок, место; build­ing ~ - строительная площадка

ü slice – n слой; slicing - n выем­ка слоями, разработка слоями

ü strip – v производить вскрыш­ные работы; разрабатывать; очи­щать (лаву); вынимать породу или руду; n полоса; stripper – n забойщик; вскрышной экскава­тор; stripping – n открытая разра­ботка, открытые горные рабо­ты; вскрыша; вскрытие наносов

ü unit - n агрегат; установка; устройство; прибор; узел; сек­ция; деталь; машина; механизм; единица измерения; участок

ü washery – n углемойка; рудомойка; моечный цех

ü to attract smb's attention - привлекать чье-л. внимание

ü not to mention ... не говоря уже о ...


 

Вопросы к тексту:

 

1. What deposits can be extracted by the open-cast method?

2. What is called an opencast?

3. What is the difference between a trench and an opencast?

4. Is the removal of overburden the first operation in open-cast mining?

5. In what case is it necessary to use explosives to break mineral?

6. Is hydraulicking used only in open-cast mining?

7. What equipment is used in hydraulicking?

8. What transport systems are used in opencasts?

9. Where is waste rock dumped?

10. What is the main advantage of open-cast mining?

Текст №3

 

Ore Mining

As has already been said mining is a branch of industry which deals with the recovery of valuable minerals from the interior of the Earth.

When minerals occur so that they can be worked at a profit, they are called ore deposits. Economic minerals are those which are of economic importance and include both metallic (ore minerals) and non-metallic minerals such as building materials (sand, stone, etc.).

In choosing the methods of working ore deposits one must take into consideration the following main factors: 1) the shape of the deposit; 2) the dimensions of the deposit in thickness, along the strike and down the dip; 3) the type of ore and the distribution of metal in the ore body.

The shape of the ore deposit affects the mining method. Besides, the contact of the deposit with the country rock is of great importance.

According to their angle of dip the deposits are divided into gently sloping (up to 25*), inclined (25-45°) and steep deposits (45-90°). The thickness of ore deposits also varies. They may be very thin (from 0.7-0.8 m to 20 m) and extremely thick (more than 20 m).

One must say that a rational method of mining ensures the following: 1) safety; 2) minimum cost of production; 3) minimum losses of ore; 4) rate of extraction.

In metal mining as well as in mining bedded deposits preliminary activities (before mining) involve prospecting and exploration required to locate, characterize and prove a potential ore body.

After exploration has provided information on the shape and size of a deposit and its general geological characteristics, site development for mining begins. Mine development depends largely upon the kind of ore body and the mining method to be applied. As a rule mine development work involves development drilling; access road construction; clearing and grubbing; adit, slope or shaft development; overburden removal, construction of facilities such as concentration (dressing, processing) plants, etc. The different type of equipment required range from small, simple units such as backhoes and dump trucks to earth-movers, draglines and power shovels.

Mining operations begin with excavation work (blasting or separating portions of rock from the solid mass), loading, hauling and hoisting of the rock to the surface and supporting mine workings.

Generally speaking, the working of an ore deposit involves opening up, development, blocking out and stoping operations, the basic stoping methods in use now being open stoping, room and pillar mining, shrinkage stoping, block caving and others.

After ores are mined or dredged, they are usually processed (crushed, concentrated or dried).

Extraction processes can be done by underground or open-cast mining. The main trend has been toward low-cost open-cast mining.

 

Пояснения к тексту:


ü backhoe – n обратная ло­пата

ü blast - n взрыв; v взрывать; дуть; продувать; blasting – n взры­вание; взрывные работы; взрыв­ная отбойка

ü block out - v нарезать залежь на блоки; нарезать стол­бы

ü clearing – n выравнивание почвы; планировка грунта

ü crush – v дробить; разрушать; обрушать(ся)

ü earth-mover – n земле­ройное оборудование; syn exca­vator

ü excavator – n экскава­тор; bucket-wheel ~ роторный экскаватор; multi-bucket ~ мно-гочерпаковый экскаватор; single-bucket ~ одночерпаковый экс­каватор

ü grab – n грейфер, ковш, чер­пак; экскаватор; v захватывать; grabbing - погрузка грейфером; захватывание

ü hoist – n подъемное установ­ка (машина); подъемник; лебед­ка; v поднимать; hoisting - шахт­ный подъем

ü plough – n струг

ü power shovel – n меха­ническая лопата; экскаватор ти­па механической лопаты

ü range – n колебание в опре­деленных пределах

ü rate – n норма; скорость, темп; коэффициент; степень; разрез; сорт; мощность; расход (воды)

ü remote - a отдаленный; ~ control дистанционное управле­ние

ü result – v (in) приводить (к); иметь своим результатом; (from) следовать (из), происходить в результате

ü safety – n безопасность; тех­ника безопасности

ü stope – n забой, сплошной забой, очистной забой; v очи­щать забой, вынимать породу, уголь; syn face; stoping очист­ные работы; очистная выемка; open stoping - выемка с откры­тым забоем; shrinkage stoping - выемка системой с магазинированием (руды)

ü support - v крепить; под­держивать; подпирать; n стойка; опора; поддержание; крепление; syn timbering; powered roof ~ ме­ханизированная крепь; self-ad­vancing powered roof ~ передвиж­ная механизированная крепь


 

 

Вопросы к тексту:

 

1. What minerals do we usually call economic?

2. Is the type of ore the only factor which the engineer takes into consideration in choosing the methods of working ore deposits?

3. What does a rational method of mining guarantee?

4. What does before mining activity include?

5. What processes does development work involve?

6. What basic stoping methods are in use now?

7. What are the main methods of working bedded deposits?

8. Is underground or open-cast mining preferable now? Why?

9. Can you give a few examples of the largest enterprises producing ores in the country?

СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДУЕМОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

 

1. Андрианова Л.Н. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных технических ВУЗов. / Л.Н. Андрианова, Н.Ю. Багрова, Э.В. Ершова. – М.: Высш. школа, 2001. - 463с.

2. Баракова М.Я. Английский язык для горных инженеров: Учебное пособие / М.Я. Баракова, Р.И. Журавлева - 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. - М.: Высш. школа, 2002. - 288с.

3. Быканова В.И. Business English. Самоучитель / В.И. Быканова, Т.В. Прохорова. – СПб.: Виктория плюс, 2002. – 256 с.

4. Дитман, И.А. Ore Mining: Учебное пособие / И.А. Дитман, Д.К. Волощенко, Л.Д. Медведер, А.М. Столетняя. – М.: Государственное научно-техническое издательство литературы по горному делу, 1963. – 164 с.

5. Мюллер, В.К. Новый англо-русский словарь/В.К. Мюллер, В.Л. Дашевская, В.А. Каплан. – 9-е изд. – М.: Рус. яз., 2002. – 880 с.

6. Науменков, П.В. Geology and Mining Exploration: Пособие по английскому языку для горно-геологических вузов / П.В. Науменков, И.Н. Нечаева, В.Т. Борисович. - М.: Высш. школа, 1975. - 132 с.

7. Пумпянский, А.Л. Чтение и перевод английской научной и технической литературы: Фонетика, грамматика, лексика / А.Л. Пумпянский. – М.: РИСО АН СССР, 1962. – 448 с.

8. Чистик, М.Я. Mining Practice: Пособие по английскому языку для студентов горных вузов / М.Я. Чистик. – М.: Высш. школа, 1968. – 159 с.

9. Шевелева С.А. Основы экономики и бизнеса: Учебное пособие / С.А. Шевелева, В.Е. Стогов. - М.: ЮНИТИ, 2001г. - 515с.

10. Шляхова В.А. Английский язык. Контрольные задания для студентов технических специальностей / В.А. Шляхова, Т.Д. Любимова. –М.: Высшая школа, 2000.-111с.

11. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 99. © 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation.

 

Приложение №1

Sample Resume

(Образец резюме)

 

 

To: resumes@dynateam.com

From: Paul Lucas

Subject: sales and marketing manager position

 

 

CURRICULUM VITAE

Paul Lucas

31 Gooseberry Avenue,

Washington, DC, USA, 17222

Tel/Fax: (412) 622-2850

E-mail: plucas@home.com

 

Summary:

My experience includes:

- effective marketing

- leading, managing and motivating others

- planning

- contacting negotiations, etc.

 

Education:  
1994-1997 Georgetown University, 44 Northern Street, Washington, DC., USA, 17775. Master of Arts in Economics.
1991-1994 Georgetown University, 44 Northern Street, Washington, DC., USA, 17775. Bachelor of Science in Commerce and International Trade.  
Special Training:  
1997-1998 In-company training including marketing (APPLE, Inc.)  
Work Experience:  
1999-present Economic Consultant Smith Associates, Inc., Washington, DC., USA, 17967. Duties include research and preparation of written reports on market development issues.
1997-1999 Market Analyst APPLE, Inc., 320 Liberty Ave., Washington, DC., USA, 17950. Responsible for design and analysis of market research, development of marketing plan.  
Technical Skills: Experience with computer programs Word, Excel, Front Page, FoxPro, and Lotus.  
Languages: Proficient in French; Elementary knowledge of Japanese.  
Interests: Swimming, Parachuting, Mountain Biking.  
References: Upon request.

 

Приложение №2






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