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Part 2. Natural Wonders of the World

СТРАНОВЕДЕНИЕ

Сборник текстов для самостоятельной работы бакалавров

заочной формы обучения всех направлений подготовки

 

 

Уфа 2013

 

УДК 811 А: 910

ББК 81.2 Анг: 26.89

С 23

 

 

Рекомендовано к изданию методическим советом ФГБОУ ВПО Башкирский ГАУ(протокол № 4 от 27 марта 2013 г.)

 

 

Составители: к.ф.н., доцент О.Н.Новикова, старший преподаватель Р.А.Исмагзамова, старший преподаватель Р.А.Юсупова.

 

 

Рецензент: к.фил.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков З.Н.Изимариева

 

 

Ответственный за выпуск: зав. кафедрой иностранных языков, к.ф.н. доцент О.Н. Новикова

 

Предлагаемый сборник текстов для чтения состоит из четырех частей: 1) Англоязычные страны, 2) Чудеса, сотворенные природой, 3) Соединенное королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, 4) Некоторые стороны жизни англичан. Общее количество печатных знаков всех текстов – около 30 тысяч. Норма чтения для студентов заочного обучения – 5 тысяч. Студентам рекомендуется выбрать тексты из всех четырех частей.

Тексты взяты из аутентичных источников и адаптированы с сохранением лексико-грамматических характеристик научно-популярного текста.

Сборник способствует активизации у студентов умения поисковой работы со словарем и навыка чтения и перевода англоязычного текста. Материал сборника содержит интересную информацию о стране изучаемого языка и будет способствовать расширению кругозора студентов.

 

Contents

Part 1 English-Speaking Countries
1.1 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
1.2 The United States of America
1.3 Canada
1.4 Australia
1.5 Ausralia’s Unique History
1.6 New Zealand
Part 2. Natural Wonders of the World 2. 1 Natural Wonders of Great Britain (part 1) Giant's Causeway («Дорога великанов»)
2.2 Natural Wonders of Great Britain (part 2) White cliffs of Dover (Белые скалы Дувра)
2.3 Kakadu National Park
2.4 Yellowstone, the First National Park of the USA
2.5 Natural wonders of the USA (Part 1)
2.6 Natural wonders of the USA (Part 2) Grand Canyon (Arizona) (Большой каньон)
Part 3. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northen Ireland 3.1 The country and a county
3.2 North, South, East and West
3.3 Scotland
3.4 England
3.5 Wales
3.6 Northern Ireland
Part 4. British Way of Life 4.1 Names 4.2 Oxford and Cambridge
4.3 British Character
4.4 Family Life
4.5 Pubs
4.6 The London Underground
4.7 Food in Britain
4.8 British Homes
4.9 The British and Sport
4.10 A National Passion
4.11 Animals and the British
4.12 Windsor Safari Park

Part 1 English-Speaking Countries

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK, for short) is the official name of the country which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Several islands around the British coast are also part of the United Kingdom.

The UK is a constitutional (or parliamentary) monarchy. The country has a monarch (a King or a Queen) as its head of state. The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of parliament. Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The different parts of Britain have their own emblems. They are all plants. You can see them on pound coins: England has the rose, Scotland has the thistle, Wales has the daffodil and Northern Ireland the shamrock.

Typical popular pastimes in the UK include going to pubs, playing and watching sport, going on holidays, doing outdoor activities, listening to pop music, reading, and watching TV. Pubs are an important part of British social life and many people spend their free time in pubs, speaking, drinking beer, meeting their friends, watching sport events. England is also famous for its gardens, and most people like gardening. This is probably one reason why so many people prefer to live in houses than in flats.

(Объем текста 1103 печатных знака)

 

The United States of America

The USA is a very powerful and the most advanced country. It leads the world in industrial and agricultural production. The total area of the USA is over 9 mln square kilometers. The population of the country is 300 mln people. In size it ranks 4th among the countries after Russia, Canada and China.

Washington, D.C. is the capital of the United States. It has one major business, and that business is government. Many people who live in Washington work for the federal government. The White House is the official residence of the US president. You will see no skyscrapers in Washington,D.C. because they can hide from view the city’s many monuments. In fact, no building may be more than 40 metres tall.

The largest city is New York, which is nicknamed Big Apple. New York is called the city that never sleeps because it is alive at all hours of day and night.

Chicago is called the most typical American city. Chicago is on Lake Michigan, and waterways made the city a natural link between the Midwest and the East of the country. Chicago is the centre for meatpacking, grain storage, and manufacturing of farm equipment.

The Hawaii Islands are volcanic. Hawaii’s first contact with the west was in 1778, when it was discovered by the English explorer James Cook. In 1959 Hawaii was made the USA’s 50th state. Today tourism accounts for 30% of Hawaii’s income. Hawaii’s agricultural products include sugar, pineapple, and nuts.

(1215)

Canada

Canada is the 2nd country in the world by total area nearly as big as all of Europe. Only the Russian Federation is larger. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and to the Arctic Ocean in the north. The population is about 32 mln people (as of 2008). The people who inhabit Canada are: English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, Italian, Chinese, Ukranian, First Nations. About three quarters of the population live in urban areas.

The country is made up of 10 provinces and three territories. The southern region is the warmest area of the country and also has the best land and waterways. Canada is governed as a constitutional monarchy with Queen as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country with English and French as official languages at the federal level. Canada is one of the world’s highly developed countries.

The capital of the country is Ottawa with the population of 1.1 million people (as of 2006). Ottawa is situated on the Ottawa River and is considered the 4th cleanest city in the world by Forbes magazine. The largest cities are Toronto (5 million people), Montreal (3.6) and Vancouver (2.1).

Canada has 7 of the world’s largest and cleanest lakes and also contains 3 of the globe’s longest 20 rivers. About 25% of its territory is covered with forest. The best known geographic features of Canada are the Rocky Mountains and Niagara Falls.

(1170)

Australia

Australia was the last great landmass discovered by the Europeans. Its official name is the Commonwealth of Australia. It is an island continent. Australia is the world’s 6th largest country.

Mining, industry and agriculture are Australia’s most important sources of income. More recently, tourism has become important, too. Tourists come to enjoy Australia’s warm climate, to see the unique animals, such as the kangaroo, the koala and the platypus.

Australia has a population of 22 million people (as of 2008). Many of Australia’s inhabitants are of British origin, and this can be seen in many aspects of Australian life. English is the national language, cricket is the national game. In recent years, however, most immigrants have come from other European countries such as Italy, Greece and Poland, or from Asian countries. Only about one per cent of the inhabitants are Aborigines.

Some of the best architecture in Australia can be found in its capital, Canberra, founded in 1913. The whole city is fascinating because it is totally planned and orderly. Canberra has the population of 345 thousand people (as of 2008). The largest cities are Sydney (4.4 million people), Melbourne (3.8), Brisbane (1.9), Perth (1.6), Adelaide (1.2).

The Head of Government is the Prime Minister, but the Head of State is still the British monarch.

(1135)

Ausralia’s Unique History

Captain James Cook discovered Australia in1770. He was sent to discover the huge land that many people believed was south of the equator. He landed south of present day Sydney. He claimed this part of the land for the King of England.

At this time England had many social problems. Unemployment was high. Crime was one of the greatest problems. The government punished people by sending them to prison. England decided to send prisoners to the far colonies. They could work in the new colonies and eventually earn their freedom. In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip commanded eleven ships to Australia. About 750 of the 1000 people on the ships were convicts. These first settlers were greeted by the Aborigines, the first inhabitants of Australia.

Great Britain claimed all Australia in 1827. In 1851 gold was discovered west of Sydney. People rushed to the gold fields to find their fortunes.

In1901 Australia became a nation within the British Empire under Queen Victoria’s rule. It was called the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1931 Australia gained independence from Great Britain.

(930)

New Zealand

New Zealand stretches 1600 km from north to south. It consists of two large islands, its native flora and fauna are, for the most part, not found anywhere else in the world. The most famous bird is kiwi, the country’s symbol.

New Zealand is a modern country with a high standard of living. Tourism, service industries, manufacturing, small-scale industry and agriculture are all highly important in the NZ economy. Much of the land in the country is devoted to pasture, and agricultural products such as sheep, cattle, fish and forestry products are NZ’s chief exports. Farming is a scientific business in New Zealand, where the most modern scientific farming methods are used.

New Zealand’s population of 4.5 million people is comprised of people of European origin, Maori and Asians. The capital of the country is Wellington. It is often called Windy Wellington, because it is the windiest place of the island. Its population is about 400 thousand people (as of 2009).

New Zealanders place a high value on education. The country has several universities, a number of teachers’ training and polytechnical colleges and also agricultural colleges.

The country is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elisabeth II as the head of the state and the Prime Minister as the head of government. English and Maori are two official languages.

(1120)

 

Part 2. Natural Wonders of the World






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