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Эквиваленты модальных глаголов.

Модальный глагол Эквива лент Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite    
can to be ableto … is(am, are) able to was(were) able to … will /shall be able to …    
may to be allowed to … is (am, are)allowed to … was /were allowed to … will /shall be allowed to …    
must to be to … to have to … is(am, are) has(have) to … was (were)to... had to … will have to …    

Глаголы shouldи oughtупотребляются для выражения морального долга, или совета и переводятся «должен, следует». Являясь модальным глаголом, shouldупотребляется со всеми лицами единственного и множественного числа.

Глагол oughtупотребляется во всех лицах единственного и множественного числа. Инфинитив смыслового глагола после глагола ought употребляется с частицей to.


Когда речь идет о необходимости совершения действия в силу предварительной договорённости или заранее намеченного плана, или расписания, употребляется глагол to be с последующим инфинитивом основного глагола.


Old machinery is to be replaced next month.

Старые машины должны быть заменены в следующем месяце.


They were to discuss the plan of their research work at the last meeting.

Они должны были обсуждать план научно-исследовательской работы на прошлом заседании.



I. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to modal verbs and their equivalents.


A 1. We must use new methods in our research work. 2. Due to the energy of the atom man can produce electric energy at atomic power stations. 3. You may use this instrument for measuring gas pressure. 4. They ought to help their colleagues to solve this important problem. 5. He could not complete his research in time as he worked very slowly. 6. You should turn off the light before you leave the room. 7. In scientific work we must measure in units of the metric system. 8. We ought to say that the discovery of atomic energy is as important as the discovery of fire. 9. We should be prepared for scientific study of life on other planets. 10. Atoms must serve mankind. 11. The technician should have repaired the computing equipment some time ago, it yields wrong information again. 12. These data must have been processed by the digital computer. 13. The range of functions of this computing equipment must have been broadened. 14. She may use different methods in her research work.


B 1. He had to work hard before he was able to submit his paper to a scientific journal. 2. This part is very complex and the worker has to use special tools to cut it. 3. Every technical student is to study mathematics for some years. 4. We were to replace the tool by another one in time. 5. The engineer will have to improve the accuracy of this machine-tool. 6. These machines are to replace the old equipment of our shop. 7. Nobody was able to understand this mysterious phenomenon. 8. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom. 9. The students were unable to do the work without their teacher’s help. 10. This power station was to supply us with all necessary energy. 11. As he received a bad mark, he had to go over the material again. 12. He was to stay at the office until the report was ready. 13. We were to send his letter of recommendation by e-mail. 14. The builders are to errect the structure in two months.


II. Fill in the gaps with “can, may must, should”.

1 Drivers ___ stop when they see the red light. 2. Alic will have an English lesson tomorrow. He ___ study tonight. 3. Jane is a good student. She ___ speak English well. 4. There is no ink in my pen. ___ I write with a pencil? 5. You ___ study much if you want to pass the examination well. 6. The team of experts ___ study the present situation in the country. 7. Every engineer ___ know at least one foreign language. 8. Various instruments ___ be employed if chemists want to get necessary results. 9. Everything ___ be put in order when you finish your experiment in the laboratory. 10. ___ theory exist without practice?


III. Fill in the gaps with “can, can’t, could, couldn’t or was /wasn’t able to”

1. I had my hands full, so ___ open the door.

2. I heard his voice calling me, but ___see him.

3. We are busy tonight, so we ___ come to the party.

4. I ___ drive a car. I learnt when I was eighteen.

5. I ___ afford that bag. It’s too expensive.

6. You ___ see this film in one cinema only.


IV. Fill in the gaps with “must, mustn’t or needn’t /don’t have to”


1. You ___ study hard to pass the exams.

2. You ___ be late for your job interview.

3. - Shall I collect the children from the party?

- No, you ___ collect them. Mrs Show is giving them a lift home.

4. - Do you want me to wait for you after work?

- No, you ___ wait. I can walk home by myself.

5. You ___ interrupt while people are talking.


V. Fill in the gaps with “needn’t have or didn’t needto” and the correct form

Of the verb in brackets.

1. I ran all the way to work, but ___ (hurry) because I was the first person to


2. We ___ (hurry), so we stopped to have lunch on the way.

3. We went to college today, but I ___ (go) as all the lectures were cancelled.

4. I ___ (ask) the way to Lewes, since I’d been there before.

5. I ___ (buy) any food, so I didn’t go to the supermarket.


VI. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

1. I’m sure the books are in this cupboard.

mustThe books ___ cupboard.

2. Let’s have lunch in half an hour.

canWe ___ in half an hour.

3. It isn’t necessary for you to work on Saturday.

haveYou ___ on Saturday.

4. I advise you to open a bank account.

shouldYou ___ a bank account.

5. It is possible that she has forgotten to call.

mayShe ___ to call.

6. Perhaps Alice is at the hairdresser’s.

couldAlice ___ the hairdresser’s.

7. It’s forbidden to take your bag into the building.

mustn’tYou ___ into the building.

8. Running in the corridors is forbidden.

allowedYou ___ in the corridors.

9. Is it possible that Jane is leaving school at the end of this week?

beCould ___ at the end of this week?

10.I’d better start studying for my exams soon.

oughtI ___ for my exams soon.

VII. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Нашей стране нужны хорошие специалисты.

2. Мы можем сделать эту работу за два дня.

3. Атомная энергия может иметь очень большое значение в повседневной жизни.

4. Каждый должен хорошо изучить свою специальность.

5. Ученому пришлось использовать результаты опытов других специалистов.

6. Профессору понадобится помощь своего ассистента.

7. Мы не можем увидеть звезды без телескопа, так как они слишком далеко от нас.

8. Молодые рабочие тоже могли принять участие в обсуждении этой проблемы.

9. Вы должны усердно работать, если хотите получить хорошие результаты.

10. Могут ли люди жить без воздуха?

11. Можно ли нам работать в лаборатории вечером?


“TO BE”.

(быть, находиться, являться)

Спряжение глагола “to be” во временах группы Indefinite.

  Present Past Future    
Единствен-ное число Iam you are he(she, it)is I (he, she,it) was I shall be   you he will be she it  
  Множествен- ное число   we (you, they) are   we (you, they)were   we shall be youwill be they will be  

Этот глагол может выступать в роли четырёх типов глаголов:

1. смыслового

2. глагола-связки

3. вспомогательного

4. заменителя модального глагола must.


Глагол изменяется по лицам и числам, он – неправильный, поэтому следует запомнить его три основные формы:

To be –was / were – been.


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